The way we talk about (and try to understand) suicide

Jasmine Mote

 

Suicide is a difficult topic to talk about. It’s even a difficult topic for psychologists to study. With the tragic passing of Robin Williams, there has been a flurry of grief and thoughtful comments in the media, but there has also been hostility and misinformation. The charitable organization Samaritans, devoted to helping those in distress, recently reminded various media organizations to be cautious of being sensationalist or overly simplistic in their descriptions of suicide. Unfortunately, it is not just artists or famous people or even sad people who deal with suicidal thoughts. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that roughly one person every 40 seconds dies from suicide, with approximately 10-20 times more people attempting suicide each year. Approximately 38,000 people die each year by suicide in the U.S. alone and, as of 2011, suicide was the 10th leading cause of death according to the Centers for Disease and Control Prevention. The National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) reports that over 90% of people who attempt suicide have been diagnosed with a mental illness, with depression, borderline personality disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bipolar disorder ranking amongst the mental illnesses with the highest risk of suicide. In other words, emotion-related mental health issues put people at risk for suicide.Suicide

For the average person, it’s hard to imagine what would make someone take their own life. It’s similarly difficult to study the factors that contribute to suicide. In scientific studies, psychologists usually form a hypothesis about how a factor contributes to an outcome and then manipulate that factor to assess whether it does in fact have the predicted effect on the outcome. Yet for obvious ethical reasons, researchers cannot manipulate factors and see if it impacts people’s desires to attempt suicide. Instead, researchers who study suicide rely on correlational methods to see what factors tend to be associated with suicide in the general public. Perhaps not surprisingly, some of the major personality traits that are related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors are strongly linked to emotions. Members of the McGill Group for Suicide Studies conducted a systematic review of 90 studies to examine the personality traits related to suicidal thoughts and behavior. They found that the traits that most strongly differentiated people who attempted suicide from those who did not included a tendency to worry and be anxious, to react to everyday stresses with strong negative emotions, and to experience a variety of emotional “ups and downs” in everyday life (all related to a personality trait known as neuroticism). A predisposition towards impulsivity (particularly impulsivity related to aggression) was also strongly associated with attempting suicide. On the other hand, a tendency to be gregarious and experience positive emotions (related to a trait known as extroversion) was the main factor that differentiated people who did not attempt suicide from those who did. The extent to which people say they feel hopeless ­— the persistent feeling that one’s life will never improve, no matter what someone does — also influences the likelihood of suicide. A separate review by Ryan M. Hill and Jeremy W. Pettit at Florida International University showed that people who feel like they are a burden to their loved ones are also more likely to think about and attempt suicide.

So it follows that suicide is closely related to aspects of emotion and perceptions of one’s place in the world. But it is important to note the largest predictor of suicidal behavior is unrelated to current emotion or personality: history of previous attempts (read more here). As a clinician, the first question you ask someone who reports suicidal ideation is whether or not he/she has intentionally tried to harm him/herself in the past, and if so, how many times. Other risk factors include history of physical or sexual abuse and alcohol abuse or dependence (read more here). These are important questions we can be asking our loved ones and, if you are feeling in distress or in trouble, questions we should be answering for ourselves, too.

The more knowledge we gain on why some people attempt suicide does not make it any less tragic. Feeling intense negative emotions, hopelessness that their life will not get any better, and as if their own existence is burdensome to their loved ones, some people might try to harm themselves in an impulse that, if they could take it back the next day, they might. Suicide is a tragedy that can lead to many strong emotional reactions: sadness, anger, confusion, relief, judgment, hostility, shock. While there may never be a concrete or universal answer as to why someone would choose to end his or her own life, there are many researchers and clinicians out there attempting the unenviable task of trying to identify the risk factors and, importantly, understand how we can better prevent such tragedies from occurring.*

*If you or someone you know needs to connect to helpful resources, there are many available. Suicide.org lists many resources and suicide prevention hotlines in the U.S., including the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (1-800-273-TALK) & the National Hopeline Suicide Prevent Hotline (1-800-SUICIDE, or 784-2433). Additionally, the American Psychological Association maintains a list of research-supported treatments for a variety of mental illnesses. If you are in the UK, you can contact Samaritans. Elsewhere in Europe, you can check to see if your country has a European Union emotional support helpline or you can check the International Association for Suicide Prevention’s website. In Australia, you can contact Suicide Prevention Australia or Lifeline.

 

Does darkness breed creativity?

Kristen Lindquist

I was inspired this week by the passing of Robin Williams, a comedian whose adroit repartee, clever improvisation, and physical humor touched many lives throughout his career. Williams seems the classic case of the brilliant artist plagued by darkness: he suffered from depression, alcoholism and drug addiction for many years before taking his own life.

We certainly have the idea in our society that brilliance—be it comedic, artistic, or scientific—comes at the cost of happiness. At least anecdotally, many famous individuals suffered bouts of depression or anxiety at one time in their lives and it’s thought that rates of mental illness are 8-10 times higher in writers and artists than in the general population. But does the science of emotion actually bear out the idea that negativity breeds creativity? It turns out, the findings are mixed.14714309947_7e2ae68d07_o

On the one hand, there is evidence that positive, not negative, emotions make you more creative by allowing you to think outside the box. Classic psychology studies reveal that participants who feel positive after watching a funny movie or receiving a gift are more creative on tasks that require broad thinking. One such test is the Remote Associations Test, and it works like this: Participants are given a list of three words and have to think up a fourth that links them all. For instance, they might read, “stool,” “powder,” “ball,” and have to think up a fourth word that is related to them (the answer is “foot”). Positive emotions help you become more creative because they broaden your thoughts, allowing you to see more of the forest and fewer of the individual trees. That’s the good news.

The bad news is that negativity can breed creativity too, particularly for people prone to depression. A study by Modupe Akinola and Wendy Mendes found that negative emotions caused individuals to produce more creative art; this was particularly the case for individuals with a biological vulnerability to depression. The authors first measured participants’ pre-existing levels of a steroid that has been linked to depression called dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate. (To be clear, merely possessing a biological trait that is linked to depression doesn’t mean you’ll definitely experience depression in your lifetime. Typically you need to have a biological predisposition plus experience a stressful environment to develop clinical depression. See more here.) The authors then caused participants to experience negative, positive, or neutral feelings by giving them unkind, supportive, or no feedback on a mock job interview. Finally, participants were asked to make an artistic collage and real artists later judged the collages for their level of creativity. The authors found that not only did participants in the negative emotion condition produce more creative collages, but that people who had a vulnerability to depression produced the most brilliant work of all when they were feeling negative.

These findings suggest that sadly, darkness can breed creativity. Our hope for the future is that by discovering the links between emotion, creative brilliance, and mental illness, the science of emotion might be better able to help the next generation of Robin Williamses.*

*Sixteen million Americans report symptoms of clinical depression a year and depression is a condition that can be treated. If you are in the United States, and know someone who is severely depressed and might be contemplating suicide, please get in touch with the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline http://www.suicidepreventionlifeline.org 1-800-273-TALK. Many places in the world have similar national hotlines and resources.